Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an autoimmune condition that attacks the nerves of the body. It is characterized by progressive weakness and impaired sensory function in the legs and arms. The disorder, which is sometimes called chronic relapsing polyneuropathy, is caused by damage to the myelin sheath (the fatty covering that wraps around and protects nerve fibers) of the peripheral nerves.
Guillain - Barre Syndrome is an acute form of inflammatory polyradiculopathy while CIDP is a chronic form. Although it can occur at any age and in both genders, CIDP is more common in young adults and in men more so than women. It often has symptoms that include tingling or numbness (beginning in the toes and fingers), weakness of the arms and legs, loss of deep tendon reflexes, fatigue, and abnormal sensations.
Treatment for CIDP includes corticosteroids such as prednisone, which may be prescribed alone or in combination with immunosuppressant drugs.
The course of CIDP varies widely among individuals. Some may have a bout of CIDP followed by spontaneous recovery, while others may have many bouts with partial recovery in between relapses. The disease is a treatable cause of acquired neuropathy and initiation of early treatment to prevent loss of nerve axons is recommended. However, some individuals are left with some residual numbness or weakness. It is not possible to predict with certainty how CIDP is going to affect an individual in the future. The pattern of relapses and remissions varies greatly with each patient.